# A Force Function Formula for Solutions of Nonlinear Weakly Singular Volterra Integral Equations

## Authors

• Kwasi Frempong Sarfo Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
• Prof. W. O. Denteh Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
• Dr. I. Takyi Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
• Prof. K. F. Darkwah Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

## Keywords:

Volterra integral equations, Weakly singular kernel, Force function formula, Series solutions, Unique solution

## Abstract

In this paper, we examine the nonlinear Weakly Singular Volterra Integral Equation(WSVIE),  $u(x)=f(x)+\int_{0}^{x}\frac{t^{\mu-1}}{x^\mu}[u(t)]^\beta dt$. AL-Jawary and Shehan used Daftardar-Jafari Method(DJM) and solved the above integral equation for the investigation parameter $\mu>1$ using specific force functions with $\mu$ and $\beta$ values and obtained unique solutions. We have discovered a force function $f(x)=x^{k_1}-{\frac{x^{\gamma k_1}}{\gamma k_1+\mu}}$, that allows the introduction of noise terms phenomena discovered by Wazwaz; that cancel out the terms of the power series in the successive solution terms $u_m$, $m=0,1,2,...,n$: we thus obtain a maximum finite power series terms for each solution term called truncation point and denoted by $x^{g(n)}$.  Such that the integral solution can be written as $u(x)=u_0+\sum_{m=1}^{n}u_m$, where $n$ is finite. Simplifying the solution terms we get the unique solution $u(x)=x^{k_1}$, irrespective of $n-$value in the truncation point. We discovered a formula relation between the last solution term $u_n$ and the truncation point as $u_n=a_nx^{g(n)}$. Our results confirm the results of the two solution examples of AL-Jawary and Shehan for the investigation parameter $\mu>1$. We extend the parameter range to include $\mu>1$ and $0<\mu\leq 1$ for our solution. In addition, for any chosen rational parameter $k_1$, the solution $u(x)=x^{k_1}$ is extrapolated to be valid for all integer parameter values $\beta\geq 2$, and positive rational parameter value $\mu>0$  and for any finite value of $n\geq2$.

## Author Biographies

• Prof. W. O. Denteh, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Department of Mathematics

Associate Professor

• Dr. I. Takyi, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Department of Mathematics

Dr. I. Takyi

• Prof. K. F. Darkwah, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

Department of Mathematics

Prof. K. F. Darkwah

2024-04-30

## Section

Nonlinear Analysis

## How to Cite

A Force Function Formula for Solutions of Nonlinear Weakly Singular Volterra Integral Equations. (2024). European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 17(2), 1046-1069. https://doi.org/10.29020/nybg.ejpam.v17i2.5071