https://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/issue/feedEuropean Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics2020-11-17T00:12:46+00:00Editorial Office, EJPAMeditor@ejpam.comOpen Journal Systems<h3>Welcome</h3> <p align="justify"> </p> <p align="justify"><em>European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics</em> is an Open Access international, peer-reviewed electronic journal which is devoted to high-quality and original research in the fields of pure and applied mathematics and their teaching and learning. The aim of the journal is to provide a medium by which a wide range of experience can be exchanged among researchers from diverse fields such as engineering, natural sciences or social sciences. This journal publishes high quality researches in the fields of contemporary pure and applied mathematics with a broad range of topics including algebra, topology, number theory, nonlinear analysis, mathematical methods in operations research, theoretical statistics and econometrics, and theoretical computer science.</p> <p align="justify">Open Access which is a paradigm shift in scholarly publishing means you can publish your research so it is free to access online as soon as it is published, that is, anyone can read (and circulate) freely and cite your work. Many funding agencies mandate publishing your research open access.</p> <p align="justify"><em>Editorial Board</em></p> <p align="justify">The<strong> </strong>Editorial Board consists of prominent scientists as some are Nobel Laureates.</p> <p align="justify">See <a href="/index.php/ejpam/about/editorialTeam">editorial board</a> details.</p> <p><em>Journal Impact</em><strong> </strong></p> <ul style="list-style-type: square;"> <li class="MsoNormal">Clarivate Analytics Web of Science Citation Report: Average citation per paper (impact factor): 0.61 between 2015 and 2018 from Web of Science Core Collection. This report reflects citations to source papers indexed within Web of Science Core Collection- retrieved on May 29, 2019. </li> <li class="MsoNormal">Clarivate Analytics Web of Science Citation Report: Average citation per paper (impact factor): 4.13 between 2008 and 2018 from Web of Science Core Collection. This report also includes citations to papers published before 2015, the starting year for the inclusion of EJPAM in Clarivate Analytics, within Web of Science Core Collection- retrieved on May 29, 2019.</li> <li class="MsoNormal">Harzing's Publish or Perish software: Cites/paper (impact factor): 5.41 and h-index: 24 between 2008 and 2018 from Google Scholar- retrieved on May 29, 2019. </li> </ul> <p><em>Abstracted/Indexed in:</em></p> <p align="justify">Clarivate Analytics Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Web of Science, <a title="EJPAM Scopus Source Details Page" href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/21100981084" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, Mathematical Reviews, EBSCO, Chambridge Scientific Abstracts, IndexCopernicus™, International Abstracts in Operations Research, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, <a title="Arastirmax Bilimsel Yayın İndeksi" href="http://www.arastirmax.com/dergi/european-journal-pure-and-applied-mathematics" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Arastirmax</a>.</p> <p align="justify"><em>Publisher</em></p> <p align="justify">European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics is published by <em>New York Business Global, USA</em>.</p> <p align="justify"><em><em><span class="gmail_default"></span></em></em><em>Prestigious Contributors</em></p> <div> <div><span class="gmail_default">In addition to Nobel Laureates and Abel Prize </span>Laureates<span class="gmail_default">, m</span>any researchers, authors and Editorial Board members<span class="gmail_default"> at academic institutions such as University of Oxford, Harvard University, MIT, Stanford University, Princeton University, University of Chicago, Imperial College London and Berkeley, </span>and <span class="gmail_default">other institutions </span>have<span class="gmail_default"> been</span> contribut<span class="gmail_default">ing</span> to EJPAM<span class="gmail_default">. Join them by submitting a paper.</span></div> </div> <div> </div> <div><em>Funding<span class="gmail_default">/Granting</span> Institutions</em></div> <div><em> </em></div> <div>Over the course of journal history, a majority of papers published at EJPAM have been financially supported by numerious leading universities and funding agencies all over the world including from University of Oxford, Danish National Research Foundation and Research Council of Norway to Robertson Foundation and King Abdulaziz <span class="gmail_default">City for Science and Technology</span>, to National Natural Science Foundation of China and European Commission.</div> <div> </div> <div>ISSN:1307-5543 <br />Published by New York Business Global, Maryland, USA<br />Inaugural publication: January 2008 <br />The journal is quarterly</div>https://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3842Another Look at Topological BCH-algebras2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Jemil Mancaojemil.mancao@g.msuiit.edu.phSergio Canoysergio.canoy@g.msuiit.edu.ph<p>A BCH-algebra (H, ⁕ ,0) furnished with a topology τ on H (also called a BCH-topology on H) is called a topological BCH-algebra (or TBCH-algebra) if the function ⁕: H ×H → H, defined by ⁕((x, y)) =x ⁕ y for any x,y in H, is continuous, where the Cartesian product topology on H × H is furnished by τ. In this paper, we give other structural properties of topological BCH-algebras.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3834Extremes, Extremal Index Estimation, Records, Moment Problem for the Pseudo-Lindley Distribution and Applications2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Gane Samb Logane-samb.lo@edu.ugb.snModou Ngomngomodoungom@gmail.comMoumouni Diallomoudiallo1@gmail.comThe pseudo-Lindley distribution which was introduced in Zeghdoudi and Nedjar (2016) is studied with regards to it upper tail. In that regard, and when the underlying distribution function follows the Pseudo-Lindley law, we investigate the the behavior of its values, the asymptotic normality of the Hill estimator and the double-indexed generalized Hill statistic process (Ngom and Lo, 2016), the asymptotic normality of the records values and the the moment problem.2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3856On β-local Functions in Ideal topological Spaces2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Pournima Powarpvjrdvv@rediff.comTakashi Noirit.noiri@nifty.comShikha Bhadauriashikhabhadauriamaths@gmail.com<p>In this paper, by using β-open sets in [1] we introduce and investigate the concepts<br />of the β-local function, Is∗g-β-closed sets and Ig-β-closed sets in an ideal topological space. In addition to the properties, an operation cl∗β is defined and the properties are obtained similarly with the local function in [8].</p>2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3826Free Vibration Frequency of Thick FGM Spherical Shells Based on a Third-order Shear Deformation Theory2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Mohammad Zannonzanno1ms@gmail.comAbdullah Abu-RqayiqAbdullah.aburqayiq@tamucc.eduAmmar Al-bdourzanno1ms@gmail.comIn this paper, we consider free vibration problems of functionally graded thick spherical shells. The analysis performs by collecting the radial basis functions, according to the Third Order Shear Deformation Theory that accounts for through the thickness deformation using the principle of virtual work. Numerical results include spherical shell panels with all edges clamped or simply supported to demonstrate the accuracy of the present approach.2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3812On Semitotal k-Fair and Independent k-Fair Domination in Graphs2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Marivir Ortegamarivir.ortega@g.msuiit.edu.phRowena Islarowena.isla@g.msuiit.edu.ph<p>In this paper, we introduce and investigate the concepts of semitotal k-fair domination and independent k-fair domination, where k is a positive integer. We also characterize the semitotal 1-fair dominating sets and independent k-fair dominating sets in the join, corona, lexicographic product, and Cartesian product of graphs and determine the exact value or sharp bounds of the corresponding semitotal 1-fair domination number and independent k-fair domination number.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3848Robust Exponential Stability of Recurrent Neural Networks with Deviating Argument and Stochastic Disturbance2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Zha Mingxinxietao_1294@163.comSi Wenxiaoxietao_1294@163.comXie Taoxietao_1294@163.com<p>It is well known that deviating argument and stochastic disturbance may derail the stability of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). This paper discusses the robustness of global exponential stability (GES) of RNNs accompanied with deviating argument and stochastic disturbance. For a given global exponentially stable RNNs, it is interesting to know how much the length of the interval of piecewise function and the interference intensity so that the disturbed system may still be exponentially stable. The available upper boundary of the range of piecewise variables and the interference intensity in the disturbed RNNs to keep GES are the solutions of some transcendental equations. Finally, some examples are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the inferential results.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:27+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3737A Private Case of Sendov's Conjecture2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Todor Stoyanov Stoyanovtodstoyanov@yahoo.com<p>In this paper, we prove Sendov’s conjecture, when a polynomial is with real coefficients and the conjecture is relevant to the zeros, which belong to the set M = D (0, 1) ∩ [D (1, 1) ∪ D (−1, 1)]. We can see it in Figure 1. The conjecture is true for the filled areas.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3776New Refinement of Niezgoda’s Inequality with Applications to Ky Fan Inequality2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Sadia Chanansadiachanankhan@yahoo.comAsif R. Khansadiachanankhan@yahoo.com<p>The aim of this article is to give the refinement of Niezgoda’s inequality with its applications to Ky Fan inequality and cyclic mixed symmetric means.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3807On B-ideals in a Topological B-Algebra2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Katrina Eusebio Bellezakebelleza@usc.edu.phJocelyn Vilelajocelyn.vilela@g.msuiit.edu.phThis paper presents the characterizations and properties of B-ideals in a topological B-algebra and introduces the uniform topology on a B-algebra in terms of its B- ideals. Moreover, this paper shows that a uniform B-topological space is a topological B-algebra.2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3822A Delayed Vaccination Model for Rotavirus Infection2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Florence A. Adongolawionyi@gmail.comOnyango Omondi Lawrencelawionyi@gmail.comJob Bonyolawionyi@gmail.comG. O. Lawilawionyi@gmail.comOgada A. Elishalawionyi@gmail.com<p>In this work, a mathematical model for rotavirus infection incorporating delay differ<br />ential equations has been formulated. Stability analysis of the model has been performed. The result shows that the Disease Free Equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the Endemic Equilibrium undergoes a Hopf bifurcation. Numerical analysis has been performed to validate the analysis.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3819Use of Some Topological Concepts in the Study of Some COVID−19 Symptoms2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Samirah ALZahranimam_1420@hotmail.com<p>We apply some topological concepts on topological spaces generated from both equality and similarity relation for our information system, which examine 10 hypothetical patients who suffer from some COVID−19 symptoms. This is based on the degree of accuracy generated from the cardinality of the lower and upper approximation. This method is clarified by application.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3817Univalence of New General Integral Operator Defined by the Ruscheweyh Type q-Difference Operator2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Suhila Elhaddadsuhila.e@yahoo.comHuda Aldwebyhu.aldweby@gmail.comMaslina Darusmaslina@ukm.edu.muIn this study , by employing the Ruscheweyh type q-analogue operator we consider a new family of integral operators on the space of analytical functions. For this family, we demonstrate some sufficient conditions of univalence criteria on the class of analytical functions.2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3838Self-orthogonal Codes over Fq + uFq and Fq + uFq + u 2Fq2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Lucky Erap Galvezlegalvez@math.upd.edu.phRowena Alma Bettyrabetty@math.upd.edu.phFidel Nemenzofidel@math.upd.edu.ph<p>In this paper, we establish a mass formula for Euclidean and Hermitian self-orthogonal codes over the finite ring Fq + uFq, where Fq is the finite field of order q and u2 = 0. We also establish a mass formula for Euclidean self-orthogonal codes over the finite ring Fq + uFq + u2Fq, with u3 = 0 and characteristic of Fq is odd. These mass formulas are used to give a classification of Euclidean and Hermitian self-orthogonal codes over F2 + uF2 and F3 + uF3 of small lengths.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3813Mathematical Modeling of Wastes Pile-Up in Kwadaso Municipality in Ashanti, Ghana2020-11-17T00:12:46+00:00Benedict Barnesewiekwamina@gmail.comFrancis Ohene Boatengfanbotgh@yahoo.comCharles Sebilcsebil.cos@knust.edu.ghEnock Owusupapapaa10@gmail.com<p>In this paper, a mathematical model is introduced to describe wastes pile-up in Kwadaso Municipality which categorize wastes on the streets X1(t), wastes in gutters X2(t), wastes in the dustbins X3(t), wastes in households X4(t), wastes in the market places X5(t) and the wastes sent to dumpsites X6(t). From the qualitative data, it was observed that wastes within the Municipal keeps on pilling up as time increases indefinitely. The increase is as a result of continuous enormous quantum generation of wastes which occur in the Municipality. It was also revealed that trucks were unable to carry out the expected task of carrying wastes to dumpsites regularly leading to daily overflow of wastes in Kwadaso Municipality.</p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><br class="Apple-interchange-newline" /></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3786Levin Conjecture for Group Equations of Length 92020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Muhammad Saeed Akramsaeed.akram@kfueit.edu.pkMaira Amjidcmsajs@gmail.comSohail Iqbalsohiqbal@gmail.com<span>Levin</span><span> conjecture states that every group equation is solvable over any torsion free group. The conjecture is shown to hold true for group equation of length seven using weight test and curvature distribution method. Recently, these methods are used to show that </span><span>Levin</span><span> conjecture is true for some group equations of length eight and nine modulo some exceptional cases. In this paper, we show that </span><span>Levin</span><span> conjecture holds true for a group equation of length nine modulo 2 exceptional cases. In addition, we present the list of cases that are still open for two more equations of length nine. </span>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3844Further Results on Fuzzy Soft BCK/BCI-algebras2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Deena S. Al-Kadichishtygm@gmail.comG. Muhiuddinchishtygm@gmail.comIn this paper, we obtain further results on fuzzy soft BCK/BCI-algebras and we introduce the notion of fuzzy soft sub-BCK/BCI-algebra and investigate related properties.2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3839Truncated Tangent Polynomials2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Nestor Gonzales Acalanestor.acala@gmail.comMaribeth B. Monteronestor.acala@gmail.com<p>In this paper, we introduce a class of truncated tangent polynomials which generalizes tangent numbers and polynomials, and establish various properties and identities. Moreover, we obtain some interesting correlations of truncated tangent polynomials with the Stirling numbers of the second kind and with the hypergeometric Bernoulli polynomials.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3808The Component Weighted Median Absolute Deviations Problem2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Vedran NovoselacVedran.Novoselac@sfsb.hrThis paper considers the problem of robust modeling by using the well-known Least Absolute Deviation (LAD) regression. For that purpose, the approximation function is designed and analyzed, which is based on a certain component weight of the Weighted Median of Data. It is shown that the proposed approximation function is a piecewise constant function with finitely many pieces with respect to the model parameter. Thereby, an investigation of regions of constant values of the approximation function is conducted. It is established that the designed model based on the Component Weighted Median Absolute Deviations estimates a optimal model parameter on a finite set, which describes corresponding regions. Furthermore, the specified restriction of the approximation function is observed and analyzed, in order to examine the observed problem.2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3758On (μ1, μ2, μ3)-Weakly Generalized Closed Sets2020-11-01T07:38:49+00:00Breix Michael Aguabreixmichael@yahoo.comRolando N. Palugabreixmichael@yahoo.com<p>This paper defines a new generalization of closed sets in a tri-generalized topological space called (μ1, μ2, μ3)-weakly generalized closed set (or briefly (μ1,μ2, μ3)-wg closed set) which is defined as follows: A subset A of X is (μ1, μ2, μ3)-weakly generalized closed set if clμ1(intμ2(A)) ⊆U whenever A ⊆ U and U is μ3-open in X. At least fifteen defined closed sets found in literature are considered special cases of (μ1, μ2, μ3)-weakly generalized closed set under some conditions. Furthermore, some properties of (μ1, μ2, μ3)-weakly generalized closed sets are obtained.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3870Left and Right Magnifying Elements in the Semigroup of all Binary Relations2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Watchara Teparosthitiya.t@msu.ac.thSoontorn Boontathitiya.t@msu.ac.thThitiya Theparodthitiya.t@msu.ac.th<p>An element a of a semigroup S is called left [right] magnifying if there exists a proper subset M of S such that S = aM [S = M a]. Let X be a nonempty set and BX the semigroup of binary relations on X. In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for elements in BX to be left or right magnifying.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:28+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3831Solving a Class of Integral Equations via Contractive Mapping with Rational Type2020-10-31T17:01:29+00:00Abdullah Abdullahabdullahibad474@gmail.comMuhammad Sarwarsarwarswati@gmail.comZead Mustafazead@qu.edu.qaMohammed M.M. Jaradatmmjst4@qu.edu.qa<p>In this paper, using rational type contractive conditions, the existence and uniqueness of common coupled fixed point theorem in the set up of Gb-metric spaces is studied. The derived result cover and generalize some well-known comparable results in the existing literature. Then we use the derived results to prove the existence and uniqueness solution for some classes of integral equations. Further more, an example of such type of integral equation is presented.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:29+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3868Cartan's Approach to Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations2020-10-31T17:01:29+00:00Paul Brackenpaul.bracken@utrgv.edu<p>In his work on projective connections, Cartan discusses his theory of second order differential euqtions . It is the aim here to look at how a normal projective connection can be constructed and how it relates to the geometry of a single second order differential equation. The calculations are presented in some detail in order to highlight the usage of gauge conditions.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:29+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3818Optimized Cramer’s Rule in WZ Factorization and Applications2020-10-31T17:01:29+00:00Olayiwola Babarinsaolayiwola.babarinsa@fulokoja.edu.ngAzfi Zaidi Mohammad Sofiazfi.ms@umk.edu.myMohd Asrul Hery Ibrahimhery.i@umk.edu.myHailiz Kamarulhailihailiza@usm.my<p>In this paper, W Z factorization is optimized with a proposed Cramer’s rule and compared with classical Cramer’s rule to solve the linear systems of the factorization technique. The matrix norms and performance time of WZ factorization together with LU factorization are analyzed using sparse matrices on MATLAB via AMD and Intel processor to deduce that the optimized Cramer’s rule in the factorization algorithm yields accurate results than LU factorization and conventional W Z factorization. In all, the matrix group and Schur complement for every Zsystem (2×2 block triangular matrices from Z-matrix) are established.</p>2020-10-31T17:01:29+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics