https://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/issue/feedEuropean Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics2020-05-23T15:07:06+00:00Editorial Office, EJPAMeditor@ejpam.comOpen Journal Systems<h3>Welcome</h3> <p align="justify"> </p> <p align="justify"><em>European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics</em> is an Open Access international, peer-reviewed electronic journal which is devoted to high-quality and original research in the fields of pure and applied mathematics and their teaching and learning. The aim of the journal is to provide a medium by which a wide range of experience can be exchanged among researchers from diverse fields such as engineering, natural sciences or social sciences. This journal publishes high quality researches in the fields of contemporary pure and applied mathematics with a broad range of topics including algebra, topology, number theory, nonlinear analysis, mathematical methods in operations research, theoretical statistics and econometrics, and theoretical computer science.</p> <p align="justify">Open Access which is a paradigm shift in scholarly publishing means you can publish your research so it is free to access online as soon as it is published, that is, anyone can read (and circulate) freely and cite your work. Many funding agencies mandate publishing your research open access.</p> <p align="justify"><em>Editorial Board</em></p> <p align="justify">The<strong> </strong>Editorial Board consists of prominent scientists as some are Nobel Laureates.</p> <p align="justify">See <a href="/index.php/ejpam/about/editorialTeam">editorial board</a> details.</p> <p><em>Journal Impact</em><strong> </strong></p> <ul style="list-style-type: square;"> <li class="MsoNormal">Clarivate Analytics Web of Science Citation Report: Average citation per paper (impact factor): 0.61 between 2015 and 2018 from Web of Science Core Collection. This report reflects citations to source papers indexed within Web of Science Core Collection- retrieved on May 29, 2019. </li> <li class="MsoNormal">Clarivate Analytics Web of Science Citation Report: Average citation per paper (impact factor): 4.13 between 2008 and 2018 from Web of Science Core Collection. This report also includes citations to papers published before 2015, the starting year for the inclusion of EJPAM in Clarivate Analytics, within Web of Science Core Collection- retrieved on May 29, 2019.</li> <li class="MsoNormal">Harzing's Publish or Perish software: Cites/paper (impact factor): 5.41 and h-index: 24 between 2008 and 2018 from Google Scholar- retrieved on May 29, 2019. </li> </ul> <p><em>Abstracted/Indexed in:</em></p> <p align="justify">Clarivate Analytics Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Web of Science, SCOPUS, Mathematical Reviews, EBSCO, Chambridge Scientific Abstracts, IndexCopernicus™, International Abstracts in Operations Research, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, <a title="Arastirmax Bilimsel Yayın İndeksi" href="http://www.arastirmax.com/dergi/european-journal-pure-and-applied-mathematics" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Arastirmax</a>.</p> <p align="justify"><em>Publisher</em></p> <p align="justify">European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics is published by <em>New York Business Global, USA</em>.</p> <p align="justify"><em><em><span class="gmail_default"></span></em></em><em>Prestigious Contributors</em></p> <div> <div><span class="gmail_default">In addition to Nobel Laureates and Abel Prize </span>Laureates<span class="gmail_default">, m</span>any researchers, authors and Editorial Board members<span class="gmail_default"> at academic institutions such as University of Oxford, Harvard University, MIT, Stanford University, Princeton University, University of Chicago, Imperial College London and Berkeley, </span>and <span class="gmail_default">other institutions </span>have<span class="gmail_default"> been</span> contribut<span class="gmail_default">ing</span> to EJPAM<span class="gmail_default">. Join them by submitting a paper.</span></div> </div> <div> </div> <div><em>Funding<span class="gmail_default">/Granting</span> Institutions</em></div> <div><em> </em></div> <div>Over the course of journal history, a majority of papers published at EJPAM have been financially supported by numerious leading universities and funding agencies all over the world including from University of Oxford, Danish National Research Foundation and Research Council of Norway to Robertson Foundation and King Abdulaziz <span class="gmail_default">City for Science and Technology</span>, to National Natural Science Foundation of China and European Commission.</div> <div> </div> <div>ISSN:1307-5543 <br />Published by New York Business Global, Maryland, USA<br />Inaugural publication: January 2008 <br />The journal is quarterly</div>https://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3700Developing Optimal Policies to Fight Pandemics and COVID-19 Combat in the United States2020-05-23T15:07:06+00:00Eyüp Çetineycetin@gmail.comSerap Kiremitciserapy@istanbul.edu.trBarış Kiremitcibariskiremitci@gmail.com<p>The world has faced many outbreaks and pandemics with hundreds of millions of deaths throughout its history. Those epidemics are global health concerns and as well as serious economic issues. There is certain need to allocate scarce sources efficiently to fight such epidemics in both personal and global dimensions. Here we develop and propose two optimization models to maximize the total protection from any epidemic, pandemic or bioterror attacks; the first one is personal protection model or protocol and the other one is mass protection model that is inspired by the well-known weapon-target assignment problem of operations research. These efforts are optimal allocation of scarce medical and economic resources to save millions of lives- gift of life. We implement our general mathematical programming models with real-world data to fight the coronavirus pandemic for a person and the United States. Our personal protection protocol provides 99.99% protection from COVID-19 for an American through personal strategies when the mass protection model supplies 96.961% protection on average from coronavirus pandemic for the United States through across country policies. The mass protection model which recommends general policy frame for health care policy makers could be applied for any epidemic at any level from county to city, to state and country as well as in global scale. The mathematical relation between the personal protection protocol and the mass protection model also highlights the fact of <em>unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno </em>(one for all, all for one) for fighting epidemics- particularly the moving enemy, novel coronavirus which is double invisible due to its viral nature and the availability of the high level of asymptomatic cases. Recognize the enemy, as protecting yourself means protecting people, love life, follow the rules and stay at home. That is the greatest ever social impact.</p><p>Published on 28 April 2020.</p>2020-04-29T14:53:52+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3654Some New Oscillation Results for Fourth-Order Neutral Differential Equations2020-04-29T14:53:52+00:00Osama Moaazo_moaaz@mans.edu.egClemente Cesaranoc.cesarano@uninettunouniversity.netAli Muhibmuhib39@students.mans.edu.eg<p>By employing the Riccati substitution technique, we establish new oscillation criteria<br />for a class of fourth-order neutral differential equations. Our new criteria complement a number of existing ones. An illustrative example is provided.</p>2020-04-29T14:53:52+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3634Applications of Neutrosophic N -Structures in n-Ary Groupoids2020-04-30T08:49:07+00:00Amornrat Rattanaamornrat.r@psu.ac.thRonnason Chinramamornrat.r@psu.ac.thThis paper includes the notions of neutrosophic n-ary N-subgroupoids of n-ary groupoids and some properties.2020-04-29T14:53:52+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3648On the Involute of the Cubic Bezier Curve by Using Matrix Representation in E32020-04-29T14:53:52+00:00Şeyda Kılıçoğluseyda@baskent.edu.trSüleyman Şenyurtsenyurtsuleyman52@gmail.com<p>In this study we have examined, involute of the cubic Bezier curve based on the control points with matrix form in E3. Frenet vector fields and also curvatures of involute of the cubic Bezier curve are examined based on the Frenet apparatus of the first cubic Bezier curve in E3.</p><p> </p><p> </p>2020-04-29T14:53:52+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3645Bipolar Soft Topological Spaces2020-04-29T14:53:52+00:00Asmaa Fadelasma-1011@hotmail.comSyahida Che Dzul-Kiﬂisyahida@ukm.edu.myBipolar soft set theory is a mathematical tool associates between bipolarity and soft set theory, it is deﬁned by two soft sets one of them gives us the positive information where the other gives us the negative. The goal of our paper is to deﬁne the bipolar soft topological space on a bipolar soft set and study its basic notions and properties. We also investigate the deﬁnitions of: bipolar soft interior, bipolar soft closure, bipolar soft exterior, bipolar soft boundary and establish some important properties on them. Some relations between them are also discussed. Moreover, the notions of bipolar soft point, bipolar soft limit point and the derived set of a bipolar soft set are discussed. In additions, examples are presented to illustrate our work.2020-04-29T14:53:52+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3660On Intuitionistic Fuzzy Hyper GR-ideals in Hyper GR-algebras2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Amila Pagadilan Macodi-Ringiaamila.macodi-ringia@g.msuiit.edu.phGaudencio Cempron Petalcoringaudencio.petalcorin@g.msuiit.edu.ph<p>Let $P(H)$ be the power set of $H$. Consider $\ds P^*(H)=P(H)\setminus\{\phi\}$. A hyperoperation on a nonempty set $H$ is a function $\ds\circledast:H\times H\rightarrow P^*(H).$ A set $H$ endowed with a family $\Gamma$ of hyperoperations is called a<br />hyperstructure. Hyperstructures have many applications to several sectors of both pure and applied sciences. One of the well developed hyperstructures is the hyper BCI-algebra. Recently, by following this hyperstructure, a new hyperstructure was created by Indangan et al., named as hyper GR-algebras. In this paper, fuzzy set and intuitionistic fuzzy set are applied to hyper GR-algebra. Particularly, the fuzzy hyper GR-ideal of type 1 and the intuitionistic fuzzy hyper GR-ideal are introduced, and a relationship between them are obtained. Moreover, some of their characterizations are established by the use of their level subsets.</p><p> </p>2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3636Coefficients Characterization of Entire Harmonic Functions in Terms of Norm of Gradients at Origin in R^n, n≥ 32020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Devendra Kumard_kumar001@rediffmail.comRajeev Kumar Vishnoirajeevvishnoi@gmail.com<span>Coefficient characterizations of generalized order, lower order and generalized type of entire harmonic function having the spherical harmonic expansion throughout a neighborhood of the origin in Rn have been obtained in terms of norm of gradients at origin.</span>2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3649On Generalized β-Open Sets in Ideal Bitopological Space2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Ibtissam Bukhatwai.bukhatwa@gmail.comSibel Demiralpsdemiralp@kastamonu.edu.tr<p>In this article, we introduce and study the concepts of γij -semi-I-open sets and γij -βI-open sets by generalizing (i, j)-semi-I-open sets and (ij)-βI-open sets, respectively, in ideal bitopological spaces with an operation γ : τ → P(X). Further, we describe and study (γ, δ)ij -semi-I-continuous and (γ, δ)ij -βI-continuous functions in ideal bitopological spaces and their related notions. In addition, various examples and counterexamples are given for answers to some questions raised in this study.</p>2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3637A-paracompactness and Strongly A-screenability in Topological Groups2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Muhammad Kashif Maqboolkashifmaqbool9@gmail.comAwais Yousafawais.yousaf@iub.edu.pkMuhammad Siddique Bosansiddiquebosan@hotmail.comSaeid Jafarijafaripersia@gmail.com<p>A space is said to be strongly A-screenable if there exists a σ-discrete refinement for each open cover. In this article, we have investigated some of the features of A-paracompact and strongly A-screenable spaces in topological and semi topological groups. We predominantly show that (i) Topological direct product of (countably) A-paracompact topological group and a compact topological group is (countably) A-paracompact topological group. (ii) All the left and right cosets of a strongly A-screenable subset H of a semi topological group (G, ∗, τ ) are strongly A-creenable.</p>2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3664Asymptotic Solutions of Scalar Integro-Diﬀerential Equations with Partial Derivatives and with Fast Oscillating Coeﬃcients2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Burkhan Kalimbetovburkhan.kalimbetov@ayu.edu.kzAkisher Temirbekovalisher.temirbeov@ayu.edu.kzAbdimuhan Tolepabdimuhan.tolep@ayu.edu.kzIn the paper, ideas of the Lomov regularization method are generalized to the Cauchy problem for a singularly perturbed partial integro-differential equation in the case when the integral term contains a rapidly varying kernel. Regularization of the problem is carried out, the normal and unique solvability of general iterative problems is proved.2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3659McShane Integrability Using Variational Measure2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Felipe Raypan Sumalpong Jrfelipejr.sumalpong@g.msuiit.edu.phJulius V. Benitezfelipejr.sumalpong@g.msuiit.edu.ph<p>If f : [a, b] → R is McShane integrable on [a, b], then f is McShane integrable on every Lebesgue measurable subset of [a, b]. However, integrability of a real-valued function on [a, b] does not imply McShane integrability on any E ⊆ [a, b]. In this paper, we give a characterization for the McShane integrability of f : [a, b] → R over E ⊆ [a, b] using concept of variational measure.</p>2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3650The Problem of the Optimal Control with a Lower Coefficient for Weakly Nonlinear Wave Equation in the Mixed Problem2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Gunay Ismayilovagunay_ismayilova_83@mail.ru<p>In this paper, we consider the problem of determining the lowest coefficient of weakly nonlinear wave equation. The problem is reduced to the optimal control problem, in the new problem. In the this existence theorem of the optimal control and, the Fre ́echet differentiability of the functional is proved. Also the necessary condition of optimality is derived in view of variational inequality.</p>2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3673On the Category of Weakly U-Complexes2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Gustina Elfiyantigustina.elfiyanti@uinjkt.ac.idIntan Muchtadi-Alamsyahntan@math.itb.ac.idFajar Yuliawanfajar.yuliawan@math.itb.ac.idDellavitha Nasutiondellavitha@math.itb.ac.id<p>Motivated by a study of Davvaz and Shabbani which introduced the concept of U-<br />complexes and proposed a generalization on some results in homological algebra, we study thecategory of U-complexes and the homotopy category of U-complexes. In [8] we said that the category of U-complexes is an abelian category. Here, we show that the object that we claimed to be the kernel of a morphism of U-omplexes does not satisfy the universal property of the kernel, hence wecan not conclude that the category of U-complexes is an abelian category. The homotopy category of U-complexes is an additive category. In this paper, we propose a weakly chain U-complex by changing the second condition of the chain U-complex. We prove that the homotopy category ofweakly U-complexes is a triangulated category.</p>2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3703On Regular Hypersemigroups2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Niovi Kehayopulunkehayop@math.uoa.gr<p>It is shown that an hypersemigroup (S, ◦) is regular if and only if the set of all quasi-ideals of S with the operation “∗” is a von Neumann regular semigroup. It is both regular and intra-regular if and only if the set of all quasi-ideals of S with the operation “∗” is a band.</p>2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://www.ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3667Approximation of Function in generalized Hölder Class2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Supriya Ranisupriya@cusb.ac.inH. K. Nigamsupriya@cusb.ac.in<p>IIn the present work, we study error estimation of a function g ∈ H(η) r (r ≥ 1) class using Matrix-Hausdorff (T ∆H) means of its Fourier series. Our Theorem 1 generalizes twelve previously known results. Thus, the results of [4-5, 11–16, 18, 26, 29-30] become the particular cases of our Theorem 1. Several useful results in the form of corollaries are also deduced from our Theorem 1.</p>2020-04-29T14:53:53+00:00Copyright (c) 2020 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics